Pathology definition - Ovarian Tumor ( Germ Cell Origins)
Tumor of the ovary (Germ cells)
Tumor of the ovary may arise from the germ cells and the surface epithelium. Germ cells origin tumor of the ovary may include yolk sac tumor, teratomas, choriocarcinoma, dysgerminoma and struma ovarii.
Patient with ovarian tumor may present with abdominal and pelvic pressure or discomfort. The common risk factors for the developing ovarian tumor are positive family history, nulliparity, expression of the HER2/ neu oncogene and mutation of the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2. The treatment typically focus on surgical removal of the tumor or oophorectomy or hysterectomy and chemotherapy.
Yolk sac tumor may present with increase AFP. Yolk sac tumor may present as malignant tumor. There will be a glomerulus like structure known as Schiller - Duval bodies that composed of central blood vessel covered by germ cell.
Teratomas may affect all ages. Is the most common gem cell tumors. It may present with layers of germ cells. Teratomas which is immature is malignant while mature teratomas or dermoid cyst is benign in nature. Unilateral teratoma may also be known as struma ovarri. Struma ovarii may consists of thyroid tissue and the patient may present with symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism.
Choriocarcinoma may present with raise in hCG level due to the presents of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblasts which consists of areas of hemorrhagic and necrosis. Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant tumor. Dysgerminoma is a unilateral malignant tumor that similar to male testicular seminoma. Dysgerminoma may present with large vesicular cells.