Pathology definition - Cardiac Tamponade
Cardiac tamponade is associated with Beck triad. Beck triad consists of increased in venous pressure ( distended jugular vein), hypotension and muffled heart sound.Patient may present with prominent Kussmaul’s sign ( increased in jugular venous pressure with inspiration) and pulsus paradoxus.
Cardiac tamponade should be treated with pericardiocentesis. Cardiac tamponade is caused by collection of blood in the sac of pericardium / hemopericardium. This will lead to compression of the heart and restriction of cardiac filling. This will finally lead to decreased in cardiac output. The common causes of cardiac tamponade are trauma, aortic dissection and acute myocardial infarction.
Cardiac tamponade may be detected by the large cardiac shadow/cardiac silhouette on the chest x ray and electrical alternans on the electrocardiogram.
1.Guberman, B. A., et al. "Cardiac tamponade in medical patients." Circulation 64.3 (1981): 633-640.
2.Fowler, N. O. "Cardiac tamponade. A clinical or an echocardiographic diagnosis?." Circulation 87.5 (1993): 1738-1741.